Project Ivory

Target Company - Franklin Red Limited

Following our meeting on Monday please find enclosedthe further amendedIh'atlx of Trims relating to the above for your approval.

As previously discussed, you will lei me have further instructions in relation toconditions to which Completion will be

subject You will see that 1 have left this aspect as originally drafted for the time being.

1 should be grateful if you would read the enclosed carefullyand confirm thai you are happy with the same, or

alternativelylei me know if any furtherchanges are required. I will be engaged in meetings on Thursday morning bul

am in the office for the Project Ivory rest of the week apart from that.

1look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely

Alix. Valine

Alex Paine

Note: End/. - an abbteviation for 'Enclosure', used to indicate that other documents are included Heads of Terms - document setting out the principal agreement pre-contract completion - financial closure of the deal; when it is completed

Standard phrases for starting and ending letters and emails

Stating the reason for writing Offering further assistance

I am writing to inform/advise you that ... Please let me know if you have any particular

Please find enclosed ... / I am pleased to enclose ... concerns ...

We act for / on behalf of ... Please let me know Project Ivory if we can be of further

We arc instructed hy the above-named client assistance ...

in relation to ... If you have any questions, please do not

hesitate to give me a call ... Referring to previous contact

Further to our recent correspondence ... Referring to the next step

1 write further to my letter / our meeting of ... I should/would be grateful if you could ...

As previously discussed ... Could you please confirm that ...

Following our meeting on ...
Thank you for your letter/email of ... Ending

I look forward to hearing from you shortly /

as soon as possible.

I look forward to our meeting / your reply.

Professional Project Ivory English in Use Low


1 Match the words and plirases from the letter in A opposite (1-6) with the synonyms (a-f).

1 apart from a for now

2 for the rest of b changed

3 enclosed с besides

4 further d for the remainder of

5 for the rime being e additional

6 amended f together with the letter

2 Decide which of the following phrases underlined in A opposite is an example of substitution
and which is an example of ellipsis. In the case of substitution, make a note of the phrase in the
letter which it refers back to. In the case of ellipsis, make a note of the missing word(s). The first
one Project Ivory has been done for you.

1... for the rest of the week apart from that. Substitution of 'that' for 'Thursday morning'

2 ... relating ro the above ...

3 ... I have left this aspect as originally dratted ...

4 ... read the enclosed carefully ...

5 ... and confirm that you arc happy with the same, or ...

3 Read A opposite then say if these statements arc true or false. Find reasons for your answers in
the letter.

1 The Heads of Terms have been changed several times.

2 Alex Paine has made no changes to the conditions for Completion.

3 Alex Paine is not expecting his client to give him more instructions.

4 Alex Project Ivory Paine does not expect his client to reply if he is satisfied with the enclosed document.

4 Complete this letter from Alex Paine to his client with appropriate phrases from В opposite.
There is more than one possibility for three of the answers.

6 April 2007 Dear Gordon Project Ivory Target Company - Franklin Red Limited (KR Ltd)

(l)................................................................................ (slate the reason for writing) the Agreement in respect

of the above which has now been agreed by FR Lid's solicitors. This lias not changed since the last version

sent to you by email. As (2)......................................................................... (refer to previous contact)

please note in particular details concerning employees in Project Ivory Schedule 5. I don't think there arc any surprises

there but (3)............................................................................. (offer further assistance).

If you are happy with the same, (4)........................................................................ (refer to the next step)

arrange for the Agreement to be executed on behalf of Lincoln James Ltd where indicated. Please bring the executed Agreement along to our meeting on Monday I Ith.

(5)................................................................................. (ending phrase).

Kind regards, Alex таЬлА Alex Paine

qgW"*WWW«mLPPJJJLL------------------- 1.ЛЧ1. J ■■ ■...JHII.H I.JIII ■] ■■.iiilLHIH—*—**—»■........................................................................... I) ' .Ш1Щ*" U.W.4I.I.U.JI—LW

Look for examples of substitution and ellipsis in correspondence and practise decoding them. Make a note of standard phrases you Project Ivory notice in correspondence from English-speaking colleagues or clients.

Professional English in Use La


Explanations and clarification

Explaining a procedure

When you list the different stages of a procedure, your listeners' comprehension of the information that you are presenting will be belter if you use phrases ro structure and signpost what you say. For example:

First..., then ..., next ..., after that .... finally •••

Other phrases you might use include:



The next thing/step is to ..., once that's been" done ..., before that happens you/we .... the last step will be to ...

Approximating and comparing

When talking ro or writing to a client or colleague Project Ivory from another legal system, you may need to explain or describe features of your system which are different or broadly similar. The phrases below can be used to compare aspects of your system. Ir may be appropriate to use key terms in your own language and then offer a comparative explanation, for example: ,

In Scotland 'delict' arises from the law of obligations. This is comparable to 'tort' in England.


You have X, that's what we could call Y.

We don't have X, instead wc ...

We have X but it differs from (your) Y in the Project Ivory following way ...

There is no comparable procedure approach institution regulation remedy in our/your system

In Germany this is referred to known as

Rephrasing and clarifying

When you are explaining something which is new or complex, it is important to check that your listeners understand what may be new terms or concepts. You can help their comprehension by rephrasing your words and help your own comprehension of whar they say by rephrasing or summarising their words. You can use the phrases below to signal that you are rephrasing or asking for clarification.


in England we have a common law system, that is Project Ivory, cases are ...

(.'.ould 1 (just) clarify that ...

... tort, in other words, a civil wrong

... call ro the Bar, this (actually) means qualify as a barrister.

So, what you're
explain further ... put it another way ..

Let me


I may (just) check I've got this right, I've understood you correctly, ...

Saying

suggesting proposing arguing


Professional English in Use Low


1 7.1 Explain the different stages in getting proprietary rights for an invention as if to a client. Look at A opposite and use the information below to help you. The first part of the explanation has been done for you.

■ consider submitting an application Project Ivory to the patent office in the research phase

■ don't publicly disclose the invention because this might be interpreted as prior publication

■ think about using the services of a registered parent agent to help prepare the specification (the legal document) required by the patent office

■ complete the form "Request for grant of patent'

■ take or send the documents to the patent office

■ the patent office decides whether the invention fulfils specific conditions before it grants a patent

You. wan uedrrie iocifyeyqu ar.puv\me gfcbee%ag$s\r\ Qf'Xm^ oruyyle'zry гШщ. First^pnHider...

submi'ttiiig.an amplication fcfiih€.SSrt

' 7.2 Complete the sentences with words and phrases from В opposite. Use the index to look up any unfamiliar terms. There is more than one possibility for four of the answers.

1 A bona fide act is................................................................................. an act in «nod faith.

2 The jury system in Scotland................................................................................. that in England because

there are 15 jurors on a panel in Scotland compared with 12 in England.

3 In the English legal profession, those with rights of audience in all the courts are barristers; in Scotland they are advocates.

4 ALADI (Latin American Integration Association) is................................................................................

APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Project Ivory) because it shares the aim of strengthening the trading system between its members.

5 In Scotland, juries may reach one of three verdicts: guilty, not guilty or not proven. This

............................................................................... England where only two verdicts are possible: guilty

or not guilty.

1 7.3 Complete the sentences with words and phrases from С opposite. There is more than one possibility for two of the answers.

1 The clause excludes abnormal weather conditions,................................................................................... ,

weather which is significantly different from previous records, like a hurricane.

2 Towards the end of the agreement rhere are usually rhe boiler-plate clauses,

............................................................................... , clauses such as what the applicable law will be Project Ivory and

the way in which notices have to he served.

3 During negotiations, arguments can often arise in connection with when a party has to

perform an obligation................................................................................... , disputes can happen over

the interpretation of terms like: 'immediately', 'forthwith' and 'as soon as possible".

4 You referred to the term 'forrhwith'..................................................................................... you're saying

the term is ambiguous?

Over +o tpu

Use appropriate phrases from A to talk about a complicated legal procedure you have to manage in the course of your work. Or, compare an aspect of your country's legal system or law with an equivalent in the UK or the USA or another Project Ivory legal system.

Professional English in Use Law



Legalese

Legal language

Legal writing in English has developed over hundreds of years and is characterised by specific features, some of which can make it difficult for rhe non-lawyer to understand. Characteristics of legal writing include: using Latin terms (see text В below); using technical terms ('subsidiarity' - see Unit 8); using old-fashioned words not much in general use (see text С below); using pairs of words with a reciprocal relationship ('lessor'/'lessee' - see Unit 39); using legal jargon ('wirhotit prejudice to') including the use of pairs of words ('terms and conditions'), or triplets ('build, erect or construct'); having Project Ivory special meanings for words in ordinary use ('the judge determined the facts of the case', where 'determined' means 'decided'); using vague words ('provide a sufficient service'); using long sentences with little punctuation; inverting word order ('title absolute'); using capital letters to signal important or defined terms ('the terms of the Lease ...*) avoiding personal pronouns ('you', 'we', T); the specific use of rhe modal verb 'shall' to impose an obligation or dup on someone ('The tenant shall not sub-let the whole or part of the ptemises.'); the use of 'shall' in a directory sense ('Notice of an appeal shall Project Ivory be filed within 28 days.').

There is a movement to draft legal text m standard, modern, 'plain' English but any change will be slow,

Note: Some legal drafters argue that the use of 'shall' in a directory sense is to be avoided because of confusion. Note also the general English use of 'shall' to refer to future intentions ['I shall write to him'), although this use is increasingly uncommon.

Latin terms

There are many Latin terms in written English legal text, although recent reforms in rhe English justice system have encouraged the use of English rather than Latin. Some Latin terms Project Ivory are used so frequently that they are in general English use [e.g., ad hoc, bona fide, pro rata, etc.). It is useful ro be able to recognise their meaning and a dictionary or online glossary will help. Forms of pronunciation vary.


ad hoc - for this purpose

affidavit - witnessed, signed statement

bona fide - in good faith

caveat — warning

de facto - in fact

de jure - by right

et cetera (etc.) - and so on

exempli gratia (e.g.) - for example

ex parte (ex p.) - by a part}' without notice

id est (i.e.) - that is

in camera - hearing a case in private

in curia - in open court


in situ - in its Project Ivory original situation

inter alia - among other things

ipso facto - by the fact

per pro - on behalf of another

per se - by itself

prima facie - at first sight

pro rata - in proportion

quasi - as if it were

sub judice - in the course of trial

ultra vires - beyond the power

videlicet (viz) - namely


Older words and modern equivalents

A number of linking terms are used in older written legal texts (case reports, legislation, court documentation, contracts, etc.) to refer to other parts of the same text, to different legal documents, or to related contexts.

the aforementioned / the foregoing - set out above / written abo\e notwithstanding - despite

the undermentioned - set out below / written below thereafter Project Ivory - after that

hereafter - aftet this thereby - in that way / by that

hereby - in this way / bv this therein - in that (document)

herein - in this (document) thereof - of that

hereof- of this thereto - to that

hereto - to this therewith - with that
herewith - with this

42 Professional English in Use Law


Underline the characteristic features of legal writing mentioned in A opposite (for example, using old words) in the following consumer contract terms (1—3). Then complete the revised versions in plain terms (a-c) with appropriate words (or forms of words) from the original terms (1-3). Pay attention to the grammatical context.

. is not

This Agreement and the benefits and advantages herein

contained are Project Ivory personal to each Member and shall not be [ transferable.

------- 1
--
-—-

sold, assigned or transferred by the Member.

-"-—---------

We are only............................ for........................... or damage to............................ left in the .......................... if the loss or damage............................ from our.............................. .— —...,..__._..„.--—

Lessor shall not be liable for loss of or damage lo any property left, stored, or transported by Hirer or any other person in or upon Vehicle either before or after the relum thereof to Lessor. Hirer hereby agrees lo hold Lessor harmless from, and indemnify Lessor against all claims based on or arising out of such loss or damage unless caused by the negligence of Project Ivory Lessor.

mm limilH Ли . i i"- - iiliiM» in


We shall retain ownership of the............................. until you have finished .......................... for them. IIMIIH—III ill '""

Title to property in the goods shall remain vested in the Company ;

(notwithstanding the delivery of the same to the Customer) until I

the price of the Goods comprised in the contract and all other I

money due from the Customer to the Company on any other I
account has been paid in full.

Match the sentences containing Latin terms (1-7) with the sentences which have similar
meaning (a-g). Look at В opposite to help you.


1 There is a Project Ivory prima facie case to answer.

2 They have entered a caveat.

3 Their action was ultra vires.

4 The newspapers cannot report details of the case because it is sub judice.

5 An ex parte application was lodged at the court.

Ъ T'tic- court sat in camera.

7 An ad hoc committee was formed.


They acted in a way which was beyond their legitimate powers.

An application for an injunction was made to the court by one party and no notice was given to the othet party.

The case was heard in private, with no members of the public present.

I'ney have warned us Project Ivory they have an interest in the case, so they will need notice before we take any further steps.

A committee was set up for the particular purpose of investigating the issue. The action should proceed because one side has shown there seems to be sufficient evidence. The case cannot be mentioned in the media if it is likely to prejudice court proceedings.


Over +o ipu

What are the advantages and disadvantages of drafting legal text in 'plain' language? For information on the plain English movement, go to: www.plainenglish.eo.uk/law.htm

Professional English in Use Law


Business organisations

Sole trader

Jamie Anderson Project Ivory, a partner in the commercial department of a law firm, is commenting on the choices for different trading vehicles for business.

'A client wanting to operate a business for profit might select from a number of different trading entities. Each has different legal characteristics and is subject to different rules and regulations. The simplest and commonest form of business structure is a sole trader. This generally suits a relatively small enterprise, such as an independent software developer, a hairdresser, or a small shop. It's headed bv a single individual and it differs from a company Project Ivory in that the ownership and managemenr is usually vested in the same person, who is personally responsible for all the debts of the business, and may thus risk becoming bankrupt. Finances arc confidential and formalities arc tew, aside from Value Added Tax. or VAT, regulations.'

Partnerships

"A common form of structure for certain kinds of business, for example accountants, solicitors, and architects, is a partnership. This needs to have at least two members and normally a maximum of twenty. There is an exemption on size for some types of firm, such as solicitors and accountants. All the partners mav be jointly and severally Project Ivory liable for all the debts of the business. The relationship between the partners is usually drafted in the Partnership Agreement. This can set out the duration of the partnership, its name and business, bow profits, losses, and running costs are to be shared, how much capital each partner is to contribute, what rules will apply to the capital, what grounds will lead to a partner being expelled from the company, what restrictions are imposed on partners, and so on. It's also possible to have a Limited Liability Partnership, or LLP, which has a legal identity separate Project Ivory from its members. In this sense it resembles a limited company (see text C). It's possible for all the partners except one, known as the general partner, to be a limited partner. A sleeping partner may have a share in the business but doesn't work in it. An individual is therefore able to invest capital in an LLP without risking any further liability. LLPs must be registered with the Registrar of Companies.'

Limited Companies

A Private Limited Company (Ltd) is a separate legal entity which can sue, and be sued, in its own right. The Company is identified Project Ivory by its registered number, which will remain the same irrespective of any changes of name. A business can start life as a limited company and this may be particularly appropriate where high-risk projects are involved. In some instances, directors will be asked to guarantee the obligations of a company, for example by ejvtng security over personal assets to guarantee company borrowing. This is particularly common in the case of new companies who arc not able to demonstrate a history of profitable trading. A Public Limited Company, or PLC, is differentiated from a Private Limited Company in that rhc Project Ivory shares can be sold to the general public via the stock market to raise share capital. It's mandatory for a PLC to have at least rwo shareholders, two directors, and a professionally qualified Company Secretary. The minimum authorised share capital is £50,000 and 25% must be paid up. Before the company can trade or borrow monty, a Trading Certificate has to be obtained from the Registrar of Companies (see Unit 20).'

Professional English m Use Law


Match the two parts of the sentences then replace the underlined words and phrases with alternative words and phrases from A and В opposite. There is Project Ivory more than one possibility for one of the underlined phrases.


1 Choosing an appropriate business medium depends on

2 An individual's business will cease to Trade if

3 A small enterprise where one person bears the responsibility and takes the profits

4 In an ordinary partnership, all the partners are

5 In a Limited Partnership, a specified partner bears the risk

6 Partners need to decide

7 Details such as the division of profits and losses may be

8 Accountancy firms may have more than twenty members

9 Misconduct by a partner might lead to


a the starting date and length of the partnership. b for the firm's debts, while limited partners have

restricted liability. С set out Project Ivory in the deeds (formal documents I of the

partnership. d her being forced to leave the partnership. e because of freedom from the normal provision

under the law. f responsible collectively and individually for the

financial losses of the business. g a court declares the businessman is incapable of

paving Ills debts. h may be run by a single business person. i a number of factors, such as the size and type of

business and the need to limit liability.


1 9.2 Make word combinations from С opposite using words from the box. Then use appropriate word combinations to answer the questions below.



Registrar of Project Ivory Public authorised capita
raise guarantee Companies
the obligations entity legal

over personal assets

security

Limited Company


minimum share capital


1 In a private limited company, what guarantee may a director have to provide in order to borrow capita}?

2 What type of business organisation must have £12,500 of shares paid up?

3 Which official keeps a record of all incorporated companies, the details of their directors and their financial states?

4 It is mandatory for a PLC to have 25% of what paid up?

5 What is the purpose of a PLC selling shares to the public?

A partnership

What information would you want from a client wanting to Project Ivory start up a small profit-making business? What advice would you offer your client?

For more information on UK company registration, go to: www.companicshouse.gov.uk/.

Professional English in Use Law 45


Formation of a company

Incorporation

Jamie Anderson, a partner in the commercial department of a law firm, is discussing the formation of a company in the UK with an overseas client.

'The regulations for incorporation, that is, forming a company, are set out in the Companies Act 1985. Thete are a number of дарз to be followed in this procedure. We offer this service to clients, as do accountants and other Project Ivory private sector formation, or registration, agents. Firstly, it's necessary to choose a name for the company which is legally acceptable. The name to be registered isn't necessarily the same as the trading name. The application for registration will be rejected if the name can't be distinguished easily from a company which already exists as a registered company. The use of certain words, for example 'British', 'Internationa]' and 'European', may require prior approval before they can he used in a company name. Form 10, which gives the names of the directors and Company Secretary [see Unit 23), and Project Ivory form 12, arc submitted to the Registrar of Companies at Companies House in the respective jurisdiction1. On completion of registration, the new company will he given a company number, also known as a registered number, which remains constant throughout its life, and Companies House will issue a Certificate of Incorporation, In fact, it's possible to begin trading as a company by purchasing a shelf company, which is already registered, and having its shares transferred. This is a route chosen by clients where speed is a prerequisite.

A company must have an office in the jurisdiction at which it can Project Ivory be served with any legal process. The statutory books, or official company registers, must also be kept there and be available for inspection. Details of any registered company - its registered office, company number, accounting reference date, date of its financial year end, and history of previous names - can be found free of charge at Companies House.'

'For companies registered in England or Wales - Companies House in Cardiff. For companies registered in Scotland - Companies House in Edinburgh.

Memorandum and Articles of Association

'When a company is incorporated, it must adopt Memorandum and Articles of Association, also known as the 'Mem and Arts'. The Memorandum Project Ivory sets out the Company's objects, or purposes, and it's important to ensure that these properly reflect the company's intentions, fot example the ahiliry to mortgage company properly' for the purpose of raising finance. The Articles set out the relationship between the company and its shareholders. The requirements for directors' and shareholders' meetings arc also set out hete, as are restrictions on share transfer and allotment of new shares, and regulations concerning directors' powers and duties. Most companies are limited companies with the liability of members limited to the nominal value of the shares they hold Project Ivory or, less commonly, the amount they guarantee to contribute to the company's liability on liquidation - if the company is closed and it^ assets sold. A company must have a stated number of shares issued to properly identified shareholders. Any company will have a maximum amount of share capital which can be issued, known as the authorised share capital. A company need not issue all its authorised share capital.'

BrE: Articles of Association; AmE: Bylaws

BrE: Memorandum of Articles of Association; AmE: Articles of Incorporation

Note: For more information about shares, see Unit 21.

Professional English in Use Low


.1 Jamie's client has sent Project Ivory an email asking more about shelf companies. Complete Jamie's reply. Look at A opposite to help you. There is more than one possibility for one of the answers.


i.6e..r

С

Send chal Attach Address


A 'J


. :


From: j.anderson@happrewandco.co.uk

To: m.lynch@buchan.co.uk

Subject: д shelf company

Dear Michael,

You enquired about shelf companies. These are companies which are already registered at Companies House - often with a name which is linked to the

(1)......................................................... , for example 'XV 1000' where XY is the initials

of the solicitor's firm. The shares of the company are (2)......................................................... to the

purchaser, who normally urgently requires a (3).................................................................................. The

(4)......................................................... is Project Ivory usually changed and a new Board of Directors

and a (5)............................................................. are appointed to replace the initial Board and

Secretary, who resign on transfer. Such companies usually have standard Articles
of Association. The purchaser acquires the Certificate of (6)...........................................................

20.2 Jamie shows his client a sample Memorandum. Replace the underlined words and phrases with appropriate legal terms from A and В opposite.

No. of Company SC125543

The Companies Act 1985

PRIVATE COMPANY (1) RESTRICTED BY SHARES

MEMORANDUM AND (2) REGULATIONS OF ASSOCIATION

LANCELOT LIMITED

(Incorporated ihe 29th day of May 2002)

Arthur EvanS Ltd, Registration Agents, I Tantallon Street, Edinburgh

1. The Name of the Company is "LANCELOT LLM1TED".

2. Ihe Company Project Ivory's (3) location is to be situated in Scotland.

3. Thr Company s (4) purposes arc:

(a) To carry on for profit, directly or indirectly, whether by itself or through subsidiary, associated or allied companies or firms in the United Kingdom or elsewhere in all or any of its branches any business, undertaking, project or enterprise of any description whether of a private or public character and all or any trades, processes and activities conntfctca'uicrewiih' or ancillary or complementary thereto.

(b) To cany on any other trade or business whatever which can in the opinion of the Roard of Directors be advantageously carried Project Ivory on in connection with or ancillary to any of the businesses in die Company.

(c) To purchase or by any other means acquire and take options over any property whatever, and any rights or privileges of any kind over or in respect of property.

(Г) То improve, manage, construct, repair, develop, exchange, let on lease or otherwise (5) borrow capital with property. as_ses;urity. charge, sell, dispose of. mrn to account, grant licences, options, rights and privileges in respect of, or otherwise deal with all or any part of the property and rights of tile Company.



*ытт Project Ivory

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(y) To do all such things as may be deemed incidental or conducive to the attainment of the Company's objects or any of them. 4. The (6) responsibility of die members is limited. 5. The Company's share (7) asset value is £10.000 divided into 10.000 shares of £ I each. '««■твии

-'-■-


Over A-o ipu

What procedures are necessary to form a limited company in a jurisdiction you are familiar with?

For information on company formation in the UK, go to: www.companies-house.gov.uk/.

Professional English in Use Low 47


Raising capital by share sale


Share capital temw

Гс|'_+ i http Project Ivory://www.uksetup.co.uk


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